Basic Pond Installation

1) Select a location for you pond. Although attractive ponds can be created in shady locations, certain plants(such as water lilies) require 4-6 hours of direct sunlight daily. Place the pond in the desired location and mark out the perimeter with a shovel.


2) Remove pond and dig the hole slightly larger and deeper than the actual perimeter and depth of the pond. Remove any stones, roots, or other obstructions which might puncture or warp the pond. Make sure to shape the hole to correspond to the shape of the contour and shelf locations of the pond.


3) Cover the bottom of the hole with a shallow layer of sand and set the pond on the sand. Using a straight piece of wood and a carpenters level, shift the pond on the sand bed until it is level in every direction. The pond should be level and the rim slightly above ground level before backfilling.


4) Backfill the hole around the hole with sand or loose fine soil, while filling the pond with water at the same rate. It is important to fill and backfill simultaneously, the weight of the water will ensure the back fill does not bend the pond wall. Recheck the levels as you go. Stop and re-level, if necessary. Remember, the weigh of the weight of the water must be supported by the packed soil around it, not the plastic wall. It is important that the soil be filled tightly around the pond, and completely under the shelves.


5) After the pond is completely filled, place rocks around the perimeter and landscape as desired. Placing rocks so that they slightly overhang the lip of the pond will create a more natural setting and also provide a place to hide the hose and electric cord for a submersible pump. After construction of your pond, allow several days for the water to stabilize before adding fish.


You may wish to enhance your pond by adding a water course to provide the look of a stream flowing into the pond. You may even wish to add the Cozumel pond which has a spillway to connect it to a second pond, either pouring directly into the second pond or into a watercourse and then into a second pond.

A natural waterfall can be created from stone of your choice. If you choose to create your own waterfall, you should make a concrete footer for support and line the waterfall with plastic sheeting to prevent it from leaking into the soil. Fountains, waterfalls and water courses require the use of a submersible pump. Choose a pump which has the capacity to pump the total volume of water in your pond once every two hours. The capacity of a pump is variable, dependant on how high it must lift the water. Choose a pump with the capacity to pump the necessary volume of your pond and the height of your waterfall or water course.

Your miniature environment will require curtain elements to be properly balanced.

  • Deep water plants: Lilies provide beautiful flowers to adorn your water garden and provide shade, which prevents algae growth.
  • Marginal plants: Varieties abound and include Rushes, Cattails, and Iris. These plants prefer shallower water and are ideal for use on the shelves of your pond. They help create a natural transition from your water garden to your surrounding yard area.
  • Oxygenators: These are submerged plants such as Cobomba and Anacharis which are important in providing oxygen for fish.
  • Floating plants: Plants such as Water Lettuce or Water Hyacinth provide shade and reduce algae. (Caution: some states restrict the use of some of these plants)
  • Fish: Goldfish, Koi, and Catfish make excellent pond fish. They are beautiful to watch, and entertaining to grow. They will also control mosquitoes and other pests.

The Balance In general, fish consume oxygen and eat algae and insects while generating carbon dioxide and organic wastes. Plants consume the carbon dioxide and the fish wastes while generating oxygen and provide shade to control algae growth. Approximately 60% or more of the water surface should be covered with plants. For help of more information on setting up a pond, please talk to one of our friendly staff at P & K.